Agile Certification Training

Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO)

Scrum Alliance

CSPO Learning Objectives

Preamble

This document contains topics for the Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO) training course. The purpose of this document is to describe the minimum set of concepts and practices that must be learned by anyone attending a CSPO course. In other words, this document describes the knowledge and understanding that attendees will exit the CSPO training having been exposed to.

How an individual instructor achieves these learning objectives is left to the judgment of the instructor. It is expected that instructors will prepare vastly different course materials and participant experiences while achieving the learning objectives described in this document.

The contents of the document were created by Mike Cohn, Pete Deemer and Roman Pichler.

Scrum Basics

Understand the Scrum Flow, the core components of the Scrum framework, and the Scrum vocabulary

Teach the Scrum framework

The framework consists of the Scrum team with Scrum Master, product owner and team; the product backlog as a list of product features and deliverables that is detailed appropriately, emergent, estimated, andprioritized; the sprint with its four meetings and two inspect-and-adapt cycles; the sprint’s outcome, apotentially shippable increment of functionality (product increment). Teach that the elements of the framework are mandatory and must not be compromised.

Teach the properties of sprints

Timeboxed, protected from any changes, max. duration is a calendar month.

Teach the Definition of Done

The criteria that the product increment must fulfill atthe endof a sprint.These usually include high-priority product backlog items implemented as executable software that is thoroughly tested, free of defects, refactored, and adequately documented so that the increment could be shipped.

Teach that Scrum leverages iterative-incremental software development principles

The software system is usually implemented in form of vertical slices. Each increment extends the previous ones. Each slice should provide value to a user or customer.

Understand the principles/legs of empirical process control

Teach empirical management; empirical management consists of three “legs:”
  • Create transparency (see things for what they really are, grasp the situation)
  • Inspect (investigate causes)
  • Adapt (identify improvement measures).
As a consequence, Scrum does not prescribe how the team goes about its work in the sprint

The team uses inspect-and-adapt to manage and optimize its work. Another consequence is the lack of sophisticated reporting; customers, users and management is expected to attend the sprint review meeting to understand what the project has achieved and help maximize the likelihood of creating a successful product.

Understand the work culture Scrum creates

Characterize the work environment Scrum creates

People collaborate, enjoy their work and create software that benefits its users and customers. A good way to do this is to teach the agile values and the Scrum values; the agile values are described in the Manifesto for Agile Software Development and characterize an agile work environment where people enjoy their work and create software that benefits its users and customers; the five Scrum values are described in “Agile Software Development with Scrum:” Commitment, focus, openness, respect, and courage.

Roles & Responsibilities

Understand the scope of the Product Owner role in detail

Teach that the Product Owner is responsible for...
  • Establishing the high-level vision and goals necessary to optimize the return-on-investment for the effort—in other words, what the project will create, for whom, and why.

  • Obtaining the budget necessary for the work of the team (aka development work) to occur.

  • Gathering input about what features/functionality should be produced, and understanding the relative value of that functionality.

  • Creating a list of required features/functionality (the Product Backlog), prioritized based on value, size, risk, and other relevant considerations.

  • Providing the team with as much context and detail as the team requires to deliver the features/functionality they commit to complete during the Sprint.

  • Inspecting the features/functionality produced at the end of each Sprint, and identifying ways to improve its business value.

  • Evolving the Product Backlog from Sprint to Sprint, in response to insights about opportunities, constraints, and risks.

  • Deciding when to release software to the market/customer's.

  • Making a best effort to provide whatever input or assistance the team requests.

  • Optimizing the return-on-investment of the product, and for stakeholder management.

Also teach that The Product Owner is...
  • Required to permit the team to make a reasonable commitment for each Sprint, one which does not sacrifice quality or sustainable pace.

  • Maintaining clear release criteria (target release dates and/or target release scope) and Release Burndown Chart, and share this with the team and stakeholders.

  • Not permitted to disrupt the team or change their commitment during the Sprint, except in the event of a major change in circumstances, in which case the Product Owner may terminate the current Sprint and ask the team to plan a new one.

  • An individual and not a committee.

  • Engaged with the team throughout the Sprint, providing input and feedback as required by the team, but should take care not to disrupt or interfere with the team.

  • Typically played by the customer or customer representative, such as a product manager.

Understand the scope of the Scrum Master role at a high level

Teach that the Scrum Master is responsible for...
  • Helping the Team remove obstacles and impediments to its ability to deliver high-quality, potentially shippable features/functionality at the end of each Sprint.

  • Protecting the Team from disruption or other threats to their ability to deliver high-quality, potentially shippable features/functionality at the end of each Sprint.

  • Coaching the Team on their practices, and helping themimprove their ability to deliver high-quality, potentially shippable features/functionality each Sprint.

  • Facilitating interactions as needed within the Team, and between the Team and Product Owner.

  • Teaching Scrum to the Team, Product Owner, and other people in the organization, and for guiding the skillful use of Scrum.

  • Acting as a change-agent in growing the organization’s ability to produce business value early and often, and remove waste.

Understand the scope of the Team role at a high level

Teach that the Team is...
  • Sized for 7 people, + or – 2.

  • Scaled by having multiple teams (organized as teams of teams) rather than larger teams.

  • 100% dedicated to the Sprint, and should sit together.

  • Self-organizing and empowered to decide how much work to take on in a sprint.

  • Collectively responsible for reaching the Sprint goal and meeting the commitment.

  • Responsible for working diligently to produce high-quality, potentially shippable functionality each Sprint, without sacrificing sustainable pace of work, or the long-term quality of the work delivered.

  • Including all the skills necessary to produce a high-quality increment of potentially shippable product, and that team-members are not constrained in the work they may do by their prior role designation (coder, tester, etc.).

Understand why there is no project manager and no agile product manager

Teach that Scrum addresses the prior responsibilities of the project manager

Through the Roles of Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Team.

Teach that The delegation will introduce risk

Responsibilities from the Product Owner to a project manager or an “Agile Product Manager” will introduce risk, dysfunction, and waste.

Product Vision

Understand the importance of having the product vision as an overarching goal galvanizing the entire Scrum team

Teach the importance of having a shared goal

teams need a common goal to work together effectively. The product vision describes the common goal; it aligns the Scrum team members and stakeholders pulling everyone in the same direction.

Teach the information the vision should contain

The vision should state the customers and users of the software, the needs addressed, and the most important product attributes. It may also compare the product to existing ones and state the revenue model.

Understand the desirable qualities of the vision

Teach that a good vision is...
  • Shared. Everyone must buy into it.
  • Broad and engaging. The vision should provide guidance for the team while leaving room for creativity and trade-offs.
  • Concise. It is often captured on one or two flip chart pages or on a wiki web page.

Understand how the vision can be shaped

Teach techniques for Creating the vision

For instance: vision box, elevator statement, press release, magazine review, one page data sheet, personas and scenarios, Kano Model.

Understand the importance of carrying out just enough prep work

Teach that the upfront work in Scrum to create a product vision should be minimized

Just enough work to create a vision that gels the team and creates forward momentum; point out the danger of rushing into the project without an overall goal and of procrastinating the project and being trapped in analysis-paralysis; discuss different products and domains that require a different amount of prep work.

For instance, embedded software development with hardware and mechanics partners/sub projects vs. a web application created by a small Scrum team; teach the fallacy of trying to predict the future and making fail-safe investment decisions.

Understand the relationship between vision and product roadmap

Teach that as the product matures and incremental updates are released, the visioning effort usually declines

New product versions still need to have goals to align the Scrum team and stakeholders. Visioning now forms part of creating and updating the product roadmap.

Teach that a product roadmap is a planning artifact

That shows how the product is likely to evolve across releases and product versions, facilitating a dialogue between the Scrum team and the stakeholders.

Estimating

Understand the different estimation levels in Scrum

Teach that...
  • Product backlog items and sprint backlog items (tasks) are each estimated, commonly in hours.

  • Product backlog items are estimated.

  • Each one or more estimating units for product backlog items, such as story points or ideal days.

The purpose of estimating

The product backlog estimates enable the product owner to prioritize work and the Scrum team to determine the effort remaining to deliver the release there by tracking the progress and creating a release plan. The task estimates help the team to pull the right number of product backlog items into the sprint allowing the team to make a realistic commitment.

Understand that the accuracy of an estimate is more important than the precision of the estimate

Teach that...
  • The difference between accuracy and precision.

  • An accurate estimate may be useful even if its precision is less than the product owner would like.

  • An inaccurate (but precise) estimate is of no use.

  • Estimates in Scrum are team estimates and should not include any assumptions abut who is going to implement a product backlog items or sign up for a task.

Understand that estimates of size and duration can be done separately

Teach that the team should estimate the size of the effort

Then velocity should be used to empirically determine the duration. Size and duration can vary independently.

Understand the impact of pressuring team members to provide low estimates

Teach that...
  • Team members will provide low estimates when forced but that they won’t finish the work within that time.

  • Excessive time pressure leads to cutting quality (which comes back to hurt the project later), low morale, and loss of creativity.

Understand the difference between estimating and committing

Teach that...
  • Estimates is a prediction of the future and always includes some amount of uncertainty, even if that uncertainty isn’t stated.

  • Commitments is based on an estimate, which must be created first.

  • Implications of equating estimating with committing.

The Product Backlog

Understand what the product backlog is (and is not)

Teach the product backlog essentials

The product backlog is a list of requirements and other deliverables necessary to turn the vision into a successful product. The product backlog must must be Detailed appropriately, Estimated, Emergent, and Prioritized (DEEP).

Teach that the product backlog is not a substitute for a requirements specification

The product backlog evolves and changes constantly; many of its items are coarse-grained and sketchy to start with; they are then progressively decomposed and refined. The emphasis shifts from documentation to conversation, from specifying requirements to having an ongoing dialogue.

Teach that the product backlog can have different forms and shapes

It may be, for instance, a collection of paper cards or be held electronically as a spreadsheet or in a specialized tool. The product backlog can be flat or structured employing several columns and grouping items into themes, for instance.

Explain that a product backlog can be augmented as appropriate with other artifacts

For instance, a spreadsheet showing business rules, a Visio diagram showing a workflow, a user interface prototype or mockup. Teach that these should be only used when necessary and kept as light as possible.

Understand product backlog grooming

Teach...
  • The necessary steps to groom the product backlog such as discovering new requirements, and updating or removing existing ones; prioritizing the backlog; preparing high-priority items for the next sprint planning meeting; estimating items.

  • Approaches to stocking the product backlog and determining the release scope such as deriving the contents from the product vision.

  • That just-enough requirements are identified and described just in time according to their priority throughout the entire project.

  • That grooming the product backlog is a collaborative effort shared by all Scrum team members; the product owner leads the efforts; the team members can spend up to 10% of their time on grooming. Grooming often involves customers and users and other stakeholders including marketing and sales.

  • That the high-priority items likely to be worked on in the next sprint must be small enough to be fully transformed into a product increment. They should also be clear and testable.

  • How non-functional requirements canbe dealt with in the product backlog.

  • At least one technique suitable to capture product backlog items, for instance, user stories.

Prioritizing

Understand the importance and benefits of prioritizing the product backlog

Teach that...
  • It is important to prioritize the backlog because the team is expected to work in approximately priority order.

  • Because it is impossible to perfectly predict a schedule and the contents of a release, there is always the chance that a product will need to be shipped sooner than planned or with fewer features.

  • A prioritized product backlog enables the team to maximize the delivery of value to the customer over a given period of time.

  • Prioritizing a product backlog involves both determining what product backlog items will be planned to be in the upcoming release and the general sequence in which they will be built. The sequence should be more approximate the further out in time the features are.

Understand the implications of saying everything is mandatory

Teach that...
  • It is important to prioritize work even on a fixed-scope projectfor which all features are mandatory.

  • Since not all work can be done simultaneously, even a fixed-scope project will still benefit from prioritizing work at the start of each sprint. For example, even though all features may be considered mandatory, some features should be developed sooner so that they can be shown earlier to users for feedback.

  • It is important to acknowledge that even though a team plans and commits to deliver allfeatures on a fixed-scope project, that does not always happen: Project schedules are sometimes shortened, teams make mistakes, and so on.

Understand who should have input into prioritization decisions

Teach that...
  • It is important for the product owner to incorporate the opinions of many diverse stakeholders.

  • Opinions about priorities should be sought from users, customers and other business-side stakeholders, depending on the application.

  • It is also important to seek opinions about priorities from the developers. Such developers are often in the best position to comment on risk and changes over time in the relative cost of product backlog items.

Understand that proper prioritization of a product backlog is based on multiple factors

Teach that prioritization should be a function

Either of the desirability of the few feature or capability, the amount of learning that will be created by working on the feature, the extent to which risk is reduced by developing the feature, and any changes in the relative cost of the feature over timer.

Understand and know how to apply formal approaches to prioritizing (i.e., beyond just “gut feel” or intuition)

Teach...
  • When such approaches are applicable

  • The limitations of formal approaches in general and of any specific approaches described

  • That there are many specific techniques that may be used for prioritizing a product backlog.

  • At least three formal methods for prioritizing. Examples include non-financial methods such as relative weighting, impact estimation, theme screening, theme scoring, MoSCoW, and others. Financial measures such as net present value, economic value added, return on investment, discounted payback period and others may also be used.

Understand how much latitude to give a team in adjusting the sequence of work

Teach that although the product owner prioritizes the product backlog

The team should generally be given some latitude in sequencing work into sprints. For example, consider a team that is required to work in strict priority order and has so far planned the top three product backlog items into the sprint. Such a team could find itself in a situation where they are required to work on item four next but it is too big to fit in the sprint.

If required to work in strict priority order the team would be prevented from working on the smaller fifth item. There are many other similar reasons for working slightly out of order; an effective product owner is aware of these situations and works with the team to determine their appropriate application.

Release Management

Understand the goal of release management

Teach that...
  • The primary goal of performing release management activities is to bring the vision to life in the best possible way—to develop a product that benefits the customer/user and the organization creating it.

  • Successful release management relies on an evolving and improving understanding of user or customer needs.

  • Release management consists of estimating product backlog items, tracking the progress using release burndown charts, and creating a release plan. The latter is not a mandatory part of the Scrum framework.

Understand that planning is adaptive, iterative, and collaborative

Teach that...
  • Planning takes place at different levels in Scrum: Product, release, sprint, and day.

  • Release planning is spread throughout a project, not just early on. Plans in Scrum are dynamic and change as more information about the customer needs and the product being developed becomes available.

  • Release planning activities are carried out by the Scrum team often with the help of stakeholders, for instance, in the sprint review meeting. The product owner ensures that the necessary release management activities take place.

Understand why quality is frozen and the concept of technical debt

Teach that...
  • Quality is defined in the definition of done. It is no longer a variable but fixed.

  • Quality compromises lead to technical debt, the software becomes brittle and expensive to extend and maintain.

  • Short release cycles and frequent software updates require high quality.

Understand why software should be released early and frequently

Teach that...
  • Product increments should be released to target customers early and frequently – instead of delivering the finished product in one go.

  • Early and frequent releases allow incorporating feedback from customers and users, creating a product that meets the needs of its users.

Understanding and measuring velocity

Teach how velocity is defined

The amount of effort earned by the team per sprint; only items delivered according to the definition of done contribute to the velocity.

Teach that velocity is best observed/measured empirically

This usually requires running at least 2-3 sprints unless the team has worked together on the previous product version.

Teach how the product owner can help the team optimize its velocity

For instance, by ensuring that high-priority product backlog items are clear, feasible and testable, by jointly detailing high-priority items, and by answering questions in timely manner.

Understand the release burndown chart

Teach that the release burndown chart...
  • Is a simple report that creates transparency about the project progress relating time and the effort remaining in the product backlog. It allows the Scrum team and stakeholders to understand how the project is doing.

  • Looks at the past sprints and projects their velocity into the future allowing the Scrum team to make informed decision about managing functionality, time and cost.

  • Is updated at the end of each sprint when the remaining effort in the product backlog and the velocity are known.

  • Is no substitute for attending the sprint review meeting to fully understand the project progress and for engaging in dialogue with the Scrum team.

Understand how a release plan can help forecast the future

Teach that a release plan is a rough forecast, not a commitment and certainly no guarantee

The release plan is no substitute for a project plan; it contains less detail and is updated in each sprint. A traditional project plan no longer exists in Scrum.

Teach that a release plan is based on the amount of work remaining in the product backlog and the velocity

It looks ahead into the future forecasting delivery date, cost and functionality by anticipating the velocity of the remaining sprints, dependencies to partners and suppliers, and any releases such as alpha and beta releases.

Sprints

Understand the product owner’s role in the Scrum meetings

Teach that the Product Owner should attend and actively participate in the Sprint Planning Meeting

And should come to the meeting with a Product Backlog that is well prepared—in other words, with items at the upper part of the Product Backlog that are clearly thought through, and provide sufficient detail for the team to be able to make a commitment for the Sprint.

Teach that the Daily Scrum Meeting is the development team’s meeting

And is not intended as an update for the Product Owner. Teach that the Product Owner may attend the Daily Scrum Meeting only at the invitation of the team, and may not interfere.

Understand how the Product Owner and Development Team collaborate during the Sprint

Once the Sprint begins...

Its duration is never extended and the commitment does not equal a guarantee.

Teach that during the Sprint...
  • The Product Owner should be fully available to answer questions and clarify details that the development team requires in order to deliver their commitment.

  • The Product Owner should not disrupt or interfere with the development team.

  • The Sprint Commitment does not change, and that the Product Owner should not attempt to introduce new or changed items during the Sprint.

Teach that The Product Owner...
  • May choose to terminate the Sprint in the event of a significant change in circumstances and ask the Development Team to begin a new one.

  • Should identify new requirements during the Sprint, they should be placed on the Product Backlog to be worked on in a future Sprint.

  • Decides the Sprint length along with the development team, and share the characteristics of longer and shorter Sprints.

Understand...
  • What team commitment means
  • Why sprints are timeboxed and protected
  • The concept of sustainable pace

References

  • Cockburn, Alistair. Writing Effective Use Cases. Addison-Wesley. 2001.
  • Cohn, Mike. User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development. Addison-Wesley. 2004.
  • Cohn, Mike. Agile Estimating and Planning. Prentice Hall. 2005.
  • Cohn, Mike. Succeeding with Agile: Software Development using Scrum. Addison-Wesley. 2009.
  • Deemer, Pete; Benefield, Gabrielle; Larman, Craig; Vodde, Bas. The Scrum Primer. September 2006.
  • Pichler, Roman. Agile Product Management with Scrum: Creating Products that Customers Love. Addison-Wesley. 2010.
  • Schwaber, Ken. Scrum Guide. Scrum Alliance. June 2009.
  • Schwaber, Ken. The Enterprise and Scrum. Microsoft Press. 2007.
  • Schwaber, Ken. Agile Project Management with Scrum. Microsoft Press. 2004.
  • Schwaber, Ken and Mike Beedle. Agile Software Development with SCRUM. Prentice Hall. 2002.

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